Technology &

Steel Production

High CO2 Production

Conventional Steel Process

Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2

The conventional steel making process involves 3 steps:

  • 1. Iron Ore powder (Fe2O3), coke (Carbon) and recycled substances from the steel plant are burned to produce sinter, a strong and homogenous pellet optimal for producing steel.

  • 2. The Sinter is placed in a blast furnace alongside coke and lime (CaO). This converts the sinter into pig iron through a reduction process while producing carbon dioxide. Impurities float to the surface called slag and are separated in the furnace.

  • 3. The pig iron is added to a basic oxygen furnace or an electric arc furnace, which is melted into steel. This converts the remaining carbon into carbon dioxide and separates further impurities (slag) to decrease the carbon content.

Source: Thermo Fisher Scientific

1.8 tonnes CO2/ tonne steel produced

The use of fossil fuels means that the average CO2 emissions from steel production are about 1.85 tonnes CO2 per tonne of steel produced.

The Carbon Neutral Process

Green Steel Process

Fe2O3 + 3H2 → 2Fe + 3H20

The Green Steel making process involves 2 steps:

  • 1. Hydrogen can be substituted with coke to act as the new reducing agent to undergo the direct reduction of iron (DRI), removing the requirement of sinter. The process produces sponge iron and water, as opposed to carbon dioxide, which eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases.

  • 2. Commonly, an electric arc furnace is used to convert the sponge iron to steel.

The overall process is energy extensive but can be made carbon neutral by utilising green hydrogen sourced from renewable sources, including solar and wind turbines. The large abundance of renewable energy reserves and Australia’s strong partnerships with international organisations, make the production of Green Steel a highly feasible opportunity.

Conventional vs Green Steel Process
Green Steel Manufacturing Processes

Existing Green Steel Technologies


Company: Posco
Process: HYREX
Country: Korea
Pilot Plant Test: By 2030


Company: Hybrit
Process: HYBRIT
Country: Sweden
Pilot Plant Test: June 2021 (Completed)


Company: Primetals Technology
Process: HYFOR
Country: Austria/Japan
Pilot Plant Test: April 2021 (Ongoing)

Ammonia Production

High CO2 Production

Conventional Ammonia Production Process

N2 + 3H2 →  2NH3

The conventional ammonia production process involves 3 steps:

  • Ammonia (NH3) is produced by reacting Nitrogen (N2) and Hydrogen (H2), via the Haber-Bosch Process.

  • Nitrogen is obtained from the air using an Air Separation Unit.

  • Hydrogen is currently sourced from natural gas via Steam Methane Reforming releasing significant CO2 emissions.

Ammonia contributes to 500 Million Tonnes of CO2 Annually

Cutting emissions for a green future

Green Ammonia Production Process

  • Green Ammonia utilises hydrogen from renewable energy and electrolysis instead of natural gas
  • Consequently, there are almost no Greenhouse Gas emissions
  • The overall process remains unchanged implying that current mature technologies can be utilised and implemented rapidly
Conventional vs Green Steel Process